By Grahame Smillie
The fast growth of electronic communications, relatively within the fields of television and cellular phones doesn't overide the necessity for a transparent realizing of analogue frequencies. in addition, analogue know-how will play an enormous function in communications good into the twenty first century.
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Power in each sideband. power in both sidebands. total power. efficiency of the modulator. For each of the following modulation indexes m: 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%. 2 m W . 75 z x 8 2 8 x 5000 = . 8 m W . 6mW This example shows that at a modulation depth of 100% the power in both sidebands is only 33 % of the total output power. 5%. Also shown is that the lower the modulation depth the lower the percentage power in the sidebands. These two facts indicate the disadvantages of amplitude modulation. 7 PRACTICAL CIRCUITS Only diode modulators are considered here.
6 shows 100% modulation. It would be reasonable to assume that all amplitude modulators should operate at this depth. '" + 0 -- +11 ' . +12 ' "", "', st t +1 -2_3 -4 Fig. 6 One-hundred ".. .. ,, "'" """ . ,, - Amplitude modulation w a v e f o r m per cent modulation signal and still ensure that overmodulation does not take place. Not all people talk over the telephone with the same average loudness; some talk very softly and some very loudly. The amplitude modulators must not cause overmodulation in either case.
9 The despreading process in the receiver will spread the spectra of unwanted narrowband signals, thus improving interference rejection. 9 The effect on a spread spectrum receiver, that receives a spread spectrum from a different spread spectrum system using the same frequency bands but implementing a different spreading pattern, approximates to noise in the receiver. 1 PSEUDORANDOM CODE GENERATORS, SCRAMBLERS AND DESCRAMBLERS Pseudorandom noise code generators All spread spectrum systems make use of pseudorandom code generators.
Analogue and Digital Communication Techniques by Grahame Smillie