By Alexander of Aphrodisias
Alexander of Aphrodisias, who flourished c. 200AD, was once the top Peripatetic thinker of his age. such a lot of his philosophical energies have been spent in commenting upon Aristotle: his statement at the earlier Analytics is still probably the most thorough and invaluable courses to this hard paintings; furthermore, the statement preserves useful information regarding quite a few elements of Stoic common sense, and it additionally provides an image of express syllogistic at a turning element in its ancient improvement.
This quantity features a translation of the 1st 3rd of the statement - the half facing non-modal syllogistic. the interpretation is preceded by means of a considerable advent which discusses Alexander's position within the commentatorial culture and his use of logical terminology. The publication is finished via a translation of the pertinent a part of the earlier Analytics, a precis account of specific syllogistic, and a suite of indexes.
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Extra info for Alexander of Aphrodisias: On Aristotle Prior Analytics 1.1-7 (Ancient Commentators on Aristotle)
Then there are two grammatical constructions: antistrephein + dative, antistrephein + pros + accusative. 139 Antistrephein pros marks a symmetrical relation: if X antistrephei pros Y, then Y antistrephei pros X. We talk here of 'converting with'. Antistrephein + dative, on the other hand, is non-symmetrical: if X antistrephei toi Y, then Y may or may not antistrephei toi X. Moreover if X antistrephei toi Y, then X may be derived from Y by a process of 'prepositional conversion'. Hence we use 'convert from' for antistrephein + dative.
Introduction 29 commentators all speak of four - 'Every', 'Some', 'No' and 'Some ... not'. Hence the determination in effect gives the quality as well as the quantity of the proposition. Thus in the determinate proposition, 'Every pleasure is good', 'Every' is or marks the diorismos. e. ) Note that the word adioristos is also used in a different context, involving the truth-conditions of particular propositions. 127 Tropos has a wide non-technical use: 'way', 'method', 'mode' are variously appropriate, and we have used them as the context suggests.
An affirmative' is kataphatikon. (Aristotle - and hence Alexander - sometimes uses kategorikos as equivalent to kataphatikos. 122) 'Negative', 'negation' and 'a negative' are apophatikos, apophasis, apophatikon. But for the verbs apophaskein and apophanai 'negate' will not work, and we use 'deny'. (Aristotle and Alexander sometimes use steretikos as a synonym for apophatikos. ) The status of a proposition as affirmative or negative is called by Alexander its quality, poiotes. Propositions differ in quality, kata to poion, when one is affirmative and the other negative.
Alexander of Aphrodisias: On Aristotle Prior Analytics 1.1-7 (Ancient Commentators on Aristotle) by Alexander of Aphrodisias