By Tibor R. Machan
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Extra resources for A Primer on Ethics
By the same token, the cases investigated in conjunction with the testing of scientific theories must be connected with reality even if only remotely. TYPES OF MORAL THEORIES Specific ethical theories are broadly classified as deontological, consequentialist, and teleological. A deontological moral theory focuses on the intention that underlies an action. " If someone does something that is highly valued but the person has ulterior motives (for example, he or she wants power or praise or favors granted in return), then the act itself is deemed morally insignificant.
The preferable explanation may be that people are free to diverge because they are not set in their ways, as cats, dogs, and orangutans tend to be. The behavior of these creatures is in principle easier to predict, because (as far as we now know) they are not creative in the sense of being able to originate ideas and actions. The ideas produced by human beings can introduce new sorts of behavior in familiar situations. We allude to this tendency when we say that people often interpret their experiences differently.
This is not public evidence. " In fact your evidence is very good. Witnesses at trials are asked for the same kind of evidence when they are told to report what they have seen. The demand for such testimony calls for evidence that is in one sense introspective. " The demand forces us to refer to a memory, a source of information to which others are not privy without our reports. Introspective evidence is also involved in the various sciences when people describe what they have read on surveys or have seen on gauges or instruments.
A Primer on Ethics by Tibor R. Machan