By Michael A. Jochim
As an archaeologist with fundamental study and coaching event in North American arid lands, i've got regularly stumbled on the ecu Stone Age distant and impenetrable. My preliminary advent, in the course of a survey direction on global prehis tory, confirmed that (for me, not less than) it consisted of extra cultures, dates, and named device kinds than any undergraduate should need to be mindful. i didn't understand a lot, yet I knew there have been larger issues i'll be doing on a Saturday evening. In any occasion, after that I by no means heavily entertained any idea of pur suing study on Stone Age Europe-that direction used to be adequate for me. that is a pity, too, simply because Paleolithic Europe-especially within the overdue Pleistocene and early Holocene-was the scene of innovative human adaptive switch. Iron ically, it all was once amenable to research utilizing exactly the comparable types and analytical instruments i finished up spending the higher a part of twenty years employing within the nice Basin of western North the United States. again then, in fact, few have been puzzling over the overdue Paleolithic or Me solithic in such phrases. Typology, type, and chronology have been the order of the day, because the textual content for my undergraduate path mirrored. Jochim obviously bridled below I on the job of learning those chronotaxonomic mysteries, but he was once keenly conscious of their limitations-in specific, their silence on how person assemblages should be hooked up as a part of higher local subsis tence-settlement systems.
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Extra info for A Hunter—Gatherer Landscape: Southwest Germany in the Late Paleolithic and Mesolithic
These two goals were incorporated into the model as the major factors guiding decisions. These same two goals dominate most ecological and evolutionary research and models in anthropology. Both have been viewed as proximate factors that can ultimately be related to reproductive fitness. Efficiency in food procurement or camp location can free time for other activities (such as fighting or exchange) that may increase reproductive success, or can produce surpluses that may be used or manipulated to an individual's reproductive advantage (by securing mates, attracting followers, and so on).
Large-scale contrasts would have developed between high elevation, pine-birch-dominated areas and lower areas covered with deciduous forest, but in addition, smaller-scale differences in plant communities would have emerged according to soils, drainage, exposure, and elevation. The greater vegetational diversity would have given rise to greater spatial heterogeneity or patchiness. As a more diverse and spatially structured vegetational patterning developed in the later postglacial, it is likely that animal distributions and movements became more patterned and predictable.
Another category of "matter" in ecological transactions is raw materials of various sorts. Included are the nonfood constituents of food resources: hides, sinew, teeth, antler, and shells. The presence of such materials may add to the attractiveness of certain resources and have been included in models of food choices Oochim, 1976; Keene, 1981; Mithen, 1990). In each case the results have been rather unsatisfactory because the nonfood value cannot be measured in the same currency as the food value.
A Hunter—Gatherer Landscape: Southwest Germany in the Late Paleolithic and Mesolithic by Michael A. Jochim