New PDF release: A History of the Crusades, Volume VI: The Impact of the

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By Kenneth M. Setton, Harry W. Hazard, Norman P. Zacour

ISBN-10: 0299107442

ISBN-13: 9780299107444

The six volumes of A heritage of the Crusades will stand because the definitive heritage of the Crusades, spanning 5 centuries, encompassing Jewish, Moslem, and Christian views, and containing a wealth of knowledge and research of the historical past, politics, economics, and tradition of the medieval global.

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Extra resources for A History of the Crusades, Volume VI: The Impact of the Crusades on Europe

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122 f. 34 Cf. , and Jeffery, Foreign Vocabulary, III. 35 The Qurxânic pairing of ˜ikmah with kitâb “book” forces us to assume that in the other passages where the place of ˜ikmah is taken by ˜ukm (3:79/73, 6:89/89, 45:16/15), ˜ukm was intended to have the same meaning as ˜ikmah. ). The “wisdom” of man—and of God to whom the attribute ˜akim is often applied—was certainly something highly signiÀcant in the religious view of the world held by the Prophet. However, since the original Arabic root meaning of ˜-k-m suggested a different range of notions and since ˜ikmah/˜ukm in certain combinations appears to have been restricted to some speciÀc meanings, ˜ikmah/˜ukm never attained a position where it might have had to compete seriously with the much more Àrmly entrenched {ilm for a leading role in the Qurxân and in later Islam.

10 Hoche = 13 Kutsch and below, p. 199. Ma{rifat al-˜aqq occurs also in the commentary of xlynws on the Isagoge, as quoted by Abû l-Æasan b. Abî Dharr, Kitâb as-Sa{âdah wa-l-is{âd, ed. M. Minovi, 340 (Wiesbaden 1957–58). 5 At a very early date, the meaning of “death” was attributed by many authorities to yaqîn in Qurxân 15:99/99 and 74:47/48. Although there is hardly anything unusual in Ànding “certainty” used as a euphemism for “death,” it seems more likely that this meaning is due to exegetes who felt that in the former passage, the ordinary meaning of yaqîn did not yield an acceptable sense.

Tübingen 1963), human knowledge and divine knowledge 29 entertained notions about God’s knowledge of the same kind as we Ànd them expressed in later times or that he was fully aware of all the implications inherent in the speculation about divine knowledge. According to the Qurxân, God’s knowledge is undeniably superior in quantity to that of human beings. “God knows, and you do not know,” the Qurxân says frequently. But it is also somehow different in quality. , for instance, Qurxân 6:59/59 and also 11:31/33.

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A History of the Crusades, Volume VI: The Impact of the Crusades on Europe by Kenneth M. Setton, Harry W. Hazard, Norman P. Zacour


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