By Youssef M. Choueiri
Справочник «История Ближнего Востока» предлагает свежий взгляд на многогранную и многослойную историю этого региона, к которому отнесены Иран, Турция, Израиль и Арабский мир.
В его составе – 26 очерков международного коллектива ученых, акцентированных, в основном, на новом и новейшем периоде. В очерках уделено внимание религиозной, социальной, культурной, экономической, политической и военной истории. Затронуты также текущие проблемы, такие как - нефтяной вопрос , урбанизация, роль женщин и права человека.Образцы сканов:
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Additional resources for A Companion to the History of the Middle East
For many, expressions like ‘the rise of Islam’ refer almost exclusively to the activities of the Prophet and his immediate successors. That is the time before Islam came out of Arabia. Born in Mecca in western Arabia (the Hija¯z) at a time given only imprecisely in the _ to be about A D 570, Muhammad, accordtraditional biographies but generally taken ing to tradition, began to receive revelations from God when he was _aged about forty. With some exceptions, his Meccan fellow townsmen rejected his teachings and his claims to be a prophet.
The new culture was dominated by Islam in the religious sphere and Arabic in the linguistic one. Over time the majority of the population became Muslims in religion 16 GERALD R. HAWTING and Arabs in language (although there remained important groups of non-Arabic speaking Muslims and non-Muslim Arabic speakers). In the evolution of this Islamic culture it was not only the conquered peoples whose religious and linguistic identity changed – so too did that of the Arab conquerors. Whatever the nature of the religion and language that the Arab conquerors brought with them, the Islam and the Arabic of the Islamic world around A D 900 is not a simple, straightforward, continuation of those brought out of Arabia in the seventh century.
This group became known as the Kha¯rijites. They accused Alı¯ of having sinned by negotiating with Mu a¯wiya, and they proclaimed that only God – not men – could decide the issues that divided the community. Over the next century or so various groups that the tradition portrays as descended from the original Kha¯rijites were involved in fighting against the caliphs, and they adopted some distinctive religious and political doctrines. Generally, they regarded only themselves as true Muslims; others were not really Muslims but unbelievers or at best hypocrites.
A Companion to the History of the Middle East by Youssef M. Choueiri